Europe Ovarian Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutics Market

The European market for ovarian cancer diagnostics and therapeutics accounted for USD 359 million in 2015 and is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 10-16% until 2020.

Ovarian cancer is caused by an uncontrollable cell growth in the ovarian tissue. It is a growing concern, as it is one of the most common causes of death in women across the globe. Thereby, the need to develop new medication and therapies for the effective treatment of this disease, and new methods for the timely diagnosis of ovarian cancer is increasing. Thus the market for ovarian cancer diagnostics and therapeutics is at a stage of huge development. Europe is the second largest market for ovarian cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.

The market for ovarian cancer diagnostics and therapeutics is segmented on the basis of:

Epithelial ovarian tumors
Ovarian germ cell tumors
Ovarian stromal tumors
Primary peritoneal carcinoma
Cancer stage
Stage I
Stage II
Stage III
Stage IV
Physical examination
Blood Tests
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) test
CT scans
Localized ovarian cancer therapeutics
Metastatic ovarian cancer therapeutics
Recurrent ovarian cancer therapeutics
Targeted therapy
Radiation therapy
Hormonal therapy

Some of the major companies operating in the ovarian cancer market are Bristol Myers Squibb Company, Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Novogen, Inc., Genentech Inc., Astra Zeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH and F. Hoffman-La Roche Ltd.


Increasing incidences of ovarian cancer worldwide
Increasing population of aged women
Greater use of combination therapies for the treatment
Increase in healthcare expenditure
Increased government funding
Increasing healthcare awareness

Launch of generic drugs
Patent expiry of key drugs
Lack of accurate diagnosis of ovarian cancer

The report will be useful in gaining an exhaustive understanding of the regional market. It will also be of assistance in providing a comprehensive analysis of the major trends, innovations and associated prospects for market growth over the coming half a decade.
The report will be an ideal source material for industry consultants, manufacturers and other interested and allied parties to gain a critical insight into the factors driving and restraining the market, in addition to opportunities offered.
The report contains wide range of information about the leading market players and the major strategies adopted by them.


1) Market definition along with identification of key drivers and restraints for the market.

2) Market analysis with region specific assessments and competition analysis on a global and regional scale.

3) Identification of factors instrumental in changing the market scenarios, rising prospective opportunities and identification of key companies which can influence the market on a global and regional scale.

4) Extensively researched competitive landscape section with profiles of major companies along with their strategic initiatives and market shares.

5) Identification and analysis of the macro and micro factors that affect the industry on both global and regional scale.

6) A comprehensive list of key market players along with the analysis of their current strategic interests and key financial information.

Symptoms and Treatment of Liver Cancer

The liver is essential for the digestion of food as the largest internal organ in the body. The goal of the liver is to collect and filter the blood from the intestines. Furthermore, it can process and store needed nutrients absorbed by the intestines, chemically metabolizing (changing) some nutrients into energy or to repair and build tissue. It has other functions such as producing some of the body’s blood clotting factors and removing toxins from the body. It can be useful in helping maintain the proper sugar level in the bod. When you come across the liver cancer, you should visit the doctor.

The liver cancer begins in the liver, but it can spread to other organs. There are about 18,500 cases of primary liver cancer that are diagnosed each year. This cancer is a form of cancer with a high mortality rate. The symptoms of this cancer are very diverse. This cancer includes cholangiocellular (bile duct cancer), hepato-cholangiocellular (mixed) cancer, hepatocellular (liver cell) cancer, and undifferentiated carcinoma. When you suffer from this cancer, you will have adynamia, appetite loss, cachexia, progressive weakness, often nausea and vomiting. When you are experiencing these symptoms, you have to talk to your doctor.

The liver cancer can be detected by the a number of tests which aims to help in the diagnosis of cancer such as blood tests, physical examination and a variety of imaging techniques including X-rays (eg, chest X-rays and mammograms) as well as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound. These tests should be based on the level of your cancer. The people whose age is over 60 years are prone to get this cancer. Generally, the professional doctor is able to determine what kind of cancer is present and whether it is likely to be fast or slow growing by examining the biopsy sample.

The liver cancer can be treated with the cryoablation whose energy can be delivered directly into the tumor by a probe that is inserted through the skin. The liver disease can be cured with the medication and changes in lifestyle as well as the surgery. When the liver has failed to work, you have to undergo the liver transplant. The organs of the liver transplant come from that of the living dornor and deceased donors. Before going for the transplantation, you should make sure that the hospital can offer advanced medical equipment and skills as well as the experienced doctor for you.

Fatty Liver and the Need for Good Nutrition

Medically known as steatosis, fatty liver is an accumulation of fat cells in the liver which can be caused by many factors. There are many types of fatty liver, including alcoholic and non-alcoholic. Each type of fatty liver is typically asymptomatic and is usually found in the course of normal or routine blood screenings or in the course of ruling out another disease or condition. It is thought that fatty liver sometimes occurs as a result of a faulty fat transfer from one part of the body to another, but may also be caused by increased fat extraction of fat presented to the liver from the intestine. Another cause for fatty liver is a decrease in the rate at which the liver breaks down and removes fat from the system.

Known risk factors for fatty liver includes obesity, starvation, diabetes, corticosteroids, poisons, Cushings Syndrome, hyperlipidemia (high levels of fat in the blood), hepatitis C, and irritable bowel syndrome. Microvescular Fatty Liver can be caused by valproic acid toxicity, high doses of tetracycline and occasionally from pregnancy. The liver is typically enlarged with a minor elevation of liver enzyme tests. Fatty liver is one of the most common causes of isolated elevated liver enzymes. The disease might be suggested by ultrasound, CT or MRI, however a liver biopsy is necessary to make a definitive diagnosis of fatty liver.

Treatment for fatty liver may not be needed in mild cases, however for some forms of fatty liver eliminating alcohol, controlling blood sugar and careful weight loss may be suggested. It is very important that fatty liver be carefully monitored, no matter the type or the cause. Up to ten percent of those with cirrhotic fatty liver will convert to a type of liver cancer called hepatocellular carcinoma. The disease is seen in around 10-24% of the general public, worldwide, however it is seen in up to 75% of the obese (Source: Health Scout).

Why Fat is Not the Enemy

Fatty liver is not typically caused simply by eating high fat foods or a high fat diet, however obesity is a major risk factor. On the other side of the coin, starvation is also a cause of fatty liver. Dieting should be done in a healthy and sensible way if weight is to be lost, with no crash or fad diets that can lead the body to either slow or stop the metabolism. Starvation diets are never the answer, and because it can lead to fatty liver, are definitely not healthy.

Fat is necessary in the diet, however, how much is needed will depend on your personal dietary needs. A dietician or doctor will tell you how many calories that you should eat and how much of each nutrient that you need.

Healthy Diets Make Healthy Livers

The liver is the second heaviest organ in the body and plays a major role in the process of digestion. Your liver is the organ that decides which nutrients are needed, which are not; what is toxic and what is not and what to use as energy and what to store as fat. The harder the liver has to work to detoxify and eliminate what it deems to be harmful or unnecessary, the less effective it will eventually become. The danger of having an overstressed liver is not only fatty liver, but the possibility of eventual liver cancer. A better diet, one that includes all of the right nutrients can lead to less stress in the body as well as better overall health.

A good diet includes carbohydrates, fat, and proteins in the right amount and of the right type.

Carbohydrates – Carbohydrates are the primary energy source for the body. Most of the body can adapt to other energy sources (fats or proteins) but the brain cannot. The testes must also have energy from carbohydrates alone (Source: Roizen and Oz 2006). Carbohydrates are either simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates are those that are made from white sugar and flour and are very easily digested in the body. Unfortunately, these carbs cause the blood sugar to rise very quickly. In response, the liver sends messages to the pancreas that will in turn flood the body with insulin. Most of these simple carbs will then be stored as fat in the body instead of being burned as energy. Quickly, the body will feel that it needs energy and will send out the hunger signal again, setting you up for a vicious cycle that can lead to obesity and possibly, fatty liver.

Complex carbohydrates, like the ones in whole grain foods do not cause this rapid blood sugar spike and are broken down much more slowly. Because there is no sugar spike, the complex carbs are used by the body more efficiently.

Fats – Fat is necessary in the body, and is the second line of energy, however it is more easily broken down than carbohydrates. Bad fats are those that are solid at room temperature and/or contain the word “hydrogenated”. Good fats are those that have omega 3 fatty acids which is good for heart health. Olive oils, avocados and nuts are good sources for healthy fats.

Protein – Protein is needed by every cell in the body and in most of the major functions. It comes from two sources: plants and animals. All animal protein and soy protein are complete in that they supply all of the essential amino acids. There are 20 amino acids; the body can manufacture all but eight of these. Protein should make up around 20-30% of the diet, however, the American Heart Association cautions that diets that are higher than 35% protein are not safe.

Protein is beneficial in the diet because it leads to feelings of satiety so that you can eat far less without feeling that you are overly hungry. Protein helps to build and repair connective and contractive tissue, meaning more lean muscle mass. Muscles burn more energy simply by existing, kicking your metabolism into gear and keeping you burning fat around the clock.

Protein Supplements – There are several different kinds of protein supplements that can be added to the healthy diet. Profect from Protica is a liquid protein that can be found in several strengths as well as several flavors. The small, easy to carry around 25 gram single serving is only one hundred calories, however there is a two serving 50 gram vial that saves money over the single serve and is thicker. A 200 gram, ten serving (20 grams each) bottle is marketed for hospitals and other medical care institutions; however it can be used for home use as well. This version of Profect can be used at full strength or can be mixed with fruit juice or water. In addition, there is an all natural liquid protein supplement, Proasis that can be used as well.

There are other types of protein supplements as well- including powders (whey, rice, eggs and soy) and bars.

Why Dental-Check ups Are Important?

This delay in going to a dentist can worsen the condition by many folds, and in rare cases, it can cause serious damage. Doctors say that a regular dental check-up is as important as any other regular check-up.

A regular check-up helps you keep a check on your health. Experts from Medical Centers in Sydney suggest that a person should go to a dentist at least once a month. Dentists from CBD Medical practice Centre, Sydney, comment that dental problems are not hereditary, regardless of what the rumors say. The only thing hereditary in the dental area is the shape and structure of the teeth, which comes under Orthodontics and can be treated.

Many people like to blame their parents for their bad teeth, but they are mostly bad because of their personal habits and the effects these habits have on their teeth. Going to a dentist on time and a proper treatment will help you get rid of any dental problem.

Dental checkups also detect the early signs of mouth or oral cancer. Cancer can be treated if it’s detected in early stages. If the signs of cancer are found at later stages, it becomes fatal and treatment is costly. The chances of surviving cancer, reduce drastically too. An early detection can save you from a fatal disease before it goes out of control. An early detection and immediate treatment can not only save your life, but can also prevent you from immense pain and discomfort that you may have to face as the cancerous tissue grows big.

A dental check-up, in this case, just makes sure your teeth are in their good health and if there is any underlying problem, it can immediately be tended to. CBD Medical practice centers in Sydney frequently organize free camps in the city where anyone can get a quick check-up of their teeth, and if there is a problem, they suggest him/her to visit a medical center where it can be treated. Cancer is not the only oral problem, but it is definitely a severe one and should be treated as soon as possible. Since there is no way to know who will get affected by cancer, it is important to go to a dentist regularly and get your check-up done. Even if you have healthy oral habits, going for regular checkups will help you maintain those habits and keep your teeth healthy, dentists from medical centers in CBD say.

How to Have a Beautiful Summer Tan Year Around

Each spring, almost all women start planning how they are going to get their tan started for the summer. There are a few ways women can make themselves tanner for the summer. There are benefits and drawbacks to both. One option individuals have when trying to begin their summer glow is to go to a tanning bed, usually one or two times per week. Another way to tan is to purchase home tanning lotions that are usually available at any kind of drug store or grocery store. Women are also able to go to a salon where they will spray on tan lotion for you.

Lying in a tanning bed is one of the most popular ways that people attempt to get themselves tan for the summer season. In order to keep the tan for a longer period of time, people usually go once or twice a week, depending on the skin tone. One of the biggest positives a tanning bed is that people get the same kind of sun exposure in the bed that would get if you were actually laying outside in the sun so, this will probably give the person the most natural looking tan. Also, the tan from a tanning bed also has the most chance of lasting than any of the other options. One of the disadvantages of a tanning bed is that is can be really hazardous to the individual’s health. The reason being is that the person is still exposed to UV rays that the sun would give off and most people do not use sunscreen in the tanning beds; therefore, people put themselves at a higher risk for getting skin cancer and eye cancer from a tanning bed. Also, if the beds are not cleaned properly, people can get infections such as ringworm and lice. Make sure that you are only using reputable places.

Using self-tan lotion from a drug store or grocery store is probably the next most common way to get a tan. These kinds of lotions usually do not give the most natural look, so when choosing a lotion people need to pick carefully to make sure the tan is not too dark or too light for the skin tone. Another positive about getting this kind of lotion from a drug or grocery store is that it is much cheaper than going to a tanning bed or going to salon to get a spray tan. One of the drawbacks to using these lotions is that they do not give the most natural looking tan. One other issue is that the tan does not last as long as the tanning bed tan or the spray tan.

Finally, probably the least popular way to get a tan, is to go to a salon and receive a professional spray tan. One advantage of a spray tan is that a professional at the salon offer assistance to aide the client in selecting a color tan that is best fit for their skin tone, so they have a pretty natural look. A couple of the negatives of spray tans are that they are the most expensive and they usually do not last as long as the tanning bed tans.

There are a fair amount ways people can get beautiful, natural looking tans for the summer seasons. Each of the few ways also have their own set of advantages and disadvantages and it all depends on what kind of tan people want and how long they want the tan to last.

Lung Cancer and Pneumonectomy: The Procedure Explained

Lung cancer (LC) is treatable as long as the disease is detected early enough. As the cancerous cells spread beyond the lungs to other areas of your body, the condition becomes systemic. At late stages, it becomes more difficult to treat successfully.

Treatment for LC is typically done through chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. The form of treatment used is dependent on the location of the tumor and how far the abnormal growth has spread. Surgery involves the removal of a portion of the lung, or the entire organ. This latter operation is called a pneumonectomy.

This article will provide an introduction to the procedure, including how your doctor decides when it is necessary. We’ll also describe the steps involved with preparing you for the operation as well as what occurs during surgery.

Deciding When A Pneumonectomy Is Appropriate

Because this approach requires the removal of an entire lung, your physician will want to ensure your body will be able to tolerate its loss. The function of your healthy lung must be sufficient in order to compensate.

Pneumonectomies are done to resolve non-small cell lung cancer when the disease has spread beyond a single lobe. This can occur if the growth is large, or has simply crossed from one lobe into another. In such cases, a lobectomy cannot remove the entire portion of cancerous tissue. The entire organ must be extracted.

Preparation For Surgery

Several days prior to undergoing a pneumonectomy, your doctor will order a series of tests. There are multiple purposes for these tests. First, as noted earlier, your physician will want to make certain you can survive without the affected lung. Second, he or she will want to verify the cancer has not metastasized to other areas in your body (e.g. brain, liver, bones, etc.). Surgery is rarely the initial form of treatment when LC has spread that far.

If you’re taking anticoagulants or other medications that increase the chances of bleeding, your doctor will suggest stopping them. Smoking, too, is discouraged in the days leading up to the operation.

You’ll be asked to avoid eating and drinking during the evening prior to undergoing surgery. The following morning, you’ll be connected to a heart monitor and other equipment so the surgical team can monitor your vital signs. Once you have signed the consent form, the surgeon will prepare to perform the procedure.

The Procedure – Step By Step

A general anesthesia is administered by the surgical facility’s anesthesiologist. Once you have fallen asleep, a tube is inserted into your mouth and passed down your esophagus. The purpose of this tube is to help you breath during the operation.

The surgeon will make an incision into the side of your chest that houses the diseased lung. Once this incision has been made, your ribs will be separated in order to provide access. In some cases, the surgeon will cut away and remove a portion of the rib to gain more working space.

Once your ribs have been separated, the affected lung is collapsed. The arteries that feed blood to the organ are tied off, as is the bronchus. Once these paths have been closed, the surgeon will sever the diseased lung’s connections and remove the organ through the incision. After he or she verifies there is no bleeding, the entry site is closed.

Recovery Following A Pneumonectomy

Immediately following the pneumonectomy, you’ll be transferred to the surgical facility’s ICU. Most patients can be transferred to a standard recovery room the next day; some will need to spend several days in the ICU. Over the following seven to ten days, the nurses and hospital staff will work to encourage your activity. This improves your strength and lowers the likelihood of clotting. You will eventually be released from the facility to complete your recovery at home.

Even though a pneumonectomy has traditionally been an invasive procedure for addressing lung cancer, surgeons are beginning to use minimally invasive techniques. These techniques lower the risk of infection while shortening the patient’s recovery time. Ask your doctor whether this approach is available and suitable for your condition.

Types of Skin Cancer

Melanoma is the least common but most deadly type of skin cancer in Australia. There are two different types of Non-Melanoma cancers: Basal Cell Cancer (BCC) and Squamous Cell Cancer (SCC).
While the Non-Melanoma skin cancer types are the most common, they are the least deadly and can generally be effectively treated.
Basal Cell Cancer (BCC)
Basal Cell Cancer is the most common type of skin cancer. It occurs on skin that has been exposed to UV radiation or has been previously sunburned.
Basal Cell Cancer is a Non-Melanoma type of skin cancer that grows slowly over months and years in the lower part of the upper layer of skin, rarely spreading to other parts of the body.
The cancer typically appears as round, hard, red or pearly bumps on the face, head, nose, neck, trunk and lower legs. In most cases, it can be effectively treated by surgical removal.
Squamous Cell Cancer (SCC)
Squamous Cell Cancer is a Non-Melanoma skin cancer that grows more quickly and can spread to other parts of the body. In most cases, it can be effectively treated by surgical removal.
The cancer typically appears as a pink scale lump that may ulcerate on exposed areas of the face, ears, head, lips and back of the hands. It can be tender and produce a burning or stinging sensation.
Bowen’s Disease is Squamous Cell Carcinoma that appears as red scaly plaque on the lower legs and feet that has not spread beyond the first layer of skin.
People who have had an organ transplant or take immunosuppression medication are at a higher risk of developing Squamous Cell Cancer.
Melanoma is a form of cancer arising from maloncytes in the skin. It is more likely to affect people with a large number of moles, a family history of melanoma or with skin that is been sunburned or previously exposed to UV radiation.
Melanomas appear on the skin as a new or existing spot, freckle or mole that has changed in colour, size or shape. They can appear anywhere on the body, including areas not exposed to UV radiation. Typically, melanomas have an irregular outline and can be more than one colour.
Usually, melanomas will grow rapidly and enlarge or spread across the skin within months to form a lump that is easy to feel. They usually become darker and tend to bleed if rubbed or injured. The area around the melanoma is also often itchy.
If left untreated, melanomas can spread quickly to other parts of the body and lead to death.
People with large moles that are irregular in shape and irregular in colour are at a higher risk of melanoma. These moles can be genetic and are referred to as Dysplastic Naevi, meaning there is evidence of abnormal cellular growth. They must be closely monitored for changes.

Liver Transplantation Most Commonly Carried out Transplants

Normally, a liver disease is believed to have occurred whenever there is any alteration or disturbance in the normal functioning of the liver. If we are to medically explain liver failure, then suffice it to state that it is pretty serious enough a condition that is next only to being clinically dead.

Fortunately, there is a small but significant time gap or space within which a lot can be done to restore normal functioning of the liver of the ailing person to his or her normal health. While there are umpteen tests and treatments available to tackle adequately various small and big liver ailments, only liver transplantation is the solution in the case of liver failure.

In simple layman’s language, liver transplantation is the process of replacing a diseased liver with a healthy liver another person. In medical parlance, this process is sometimes referred to as allograft.

Here, it is necessary to understand what all factors causes liver failure. Liver failure occurs due to infection. It can also arise due to certain complications that have originated because of some medications taken in the past. Or liver failure can happen as an outcome of a long standing health problem.

In all these cases, medical science has one single solution which is liver transplantation.

Elaborating further on the topic of liver failure that necessitates liver transplantation, it may be pointed out here that the condition is characterized by the following features –

* The most common symptom is chronic hepatitis with cirrhosis.

* Also, primary billary cirrhosis wherein the immune system rather shockingly attacks the body systems causing damage to the liver and the other adjoining areas.

* Or the scarring and narrowing of the bile ducts both inside and outside the bile ducts. This condition is described as schlerosing cholagitis

* Yet another symptom of liver failure is the malformation of the bile ducts. This condition in medical terminology is referred to as biliary atresia.

* Liver failure more often than not is also accompanied by what is called the wilson’s disease that leads to an abnormally large collection of copper in the body.

* Hemochromatosis, liver cancer and alpha 1 anti-trypsin are other clear cut signs of liver failure

* Whatever the symptoms, the point remains that liver transplantation becomes an immediate way out.

Liver transplantation is also called hepatic transplantion. In most cases, the orthotropic liver transplantation is adopted in which the recipient liver is replaced by the donor liver in exactly the same anatomic location as in the donor.

Nausea and vomiting are symptoms of some serious problem

Nausea and vomiting both are not categorized under any disease, but both of these are symptoms of many other diseases like food poisoning, overeating, illness, appendicitis, infection, motion sickness, blocked intestine, brain injury and migraines, nausea and vomiting sometimes can be symptoms of other serious diseasse like heart attack, liver diseases, brain tumors, cancer and central nerve system disorder. It can also causes due to the reaction of medicine in the body. Generally it is a protective mechanism of removing harmful ingested substance from the stomach(can occur from many infectious and inflammatory conditions in the body).

The causes of Nausea and vomiting are almost similar to each other. But there are many causes that are common between Nausea and vomiting, some common causes are motion sickness, intense pain, emotional stress, food poisoning, viruses, early pregnancy, gallbladder disease, indigestion and allergy from certain smells or odors. In adults the causes of vomiting is a result of food poisoning and viral infection. Some other common causes includes Gastroparesis, Migraine, Overdose of alcohol, Vertigo, Chemotherapy, General anesthesia, Motion sickness, Rotavirus and Viral gastroenteritis.

Please note that if vomiting is still continued for more than 24 hours, you should immediately consult your doctor or health care professionals. There are various things that need to be notice are vomiting occur several hours after meals, symptoms includes fever, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain and dehydration. Puking undigested food, vomiting greenish material, vomiting self-induced and rapid breathing or pulse, in all these above mentioned cases you should immediately consult your doctor or health care professional.

Nausea and vomiting both are very common in the people of every age. These both can be the symptom of many common to serious disease. For the treatment of Nausea and vomiting there are various medicine available in the medical store. Among all medicine available in the market Motilium is the most trusted and recommended by the doctor for the patient suffering from vomiting and nausea. Motilium is a prescription medicine used for the treatment of Nausea and vomiting. This medicine is available in form of tablet by both generic and brand name. Its main ingredient is Domperidone.

Few things need to be care of before using Motilium medicine that is do not use it if you are allergic to this medicine or to its ingredient. You should inform your doctor if you are taking any prescription, non prescription and herbal medicine. Pregnant and breast feeding mothers should not buy this medicine as use of this medicine in pregnant and breast feeding may harm the health of unborn baby and nursed child. Take this medicine with a full glass of water and note that you should take it half an hour before taking your meal. As it is a prescription medicine so you should take this medicine as prescribed by the doctor. The dosage recommended for Motilium medicine is that it should be taken 3 to 4 time in a day. Store this medicine at room temperature. Keep it in a dry place away from light, heat and moisture. Keep this medicine away from the reach of the children and pet

Diagnostic Hysteroscopy at Top IVF Clinic Basrah – Best Fertility Clinic Iraq

Hysteroscopy is a procedure that allows gynecologist to look inside your uterus in order to diagnose and treat causes of infertility, recurrent miscarriage, Polyps or fibroid tumors inside the cervical canal and inside the uterine cavity or abnormal uterine bleeding. Hysteroscopy can also be used to help pinpoint the location of abnormalities in the uterine lining for sampling and biopsy. Hysteroscopy can also be used to perform surgical sterilization.Hysteroscopy is done using a hysteroscope, a thin, lighted tube that is inserted into the vagina to examine the cervix and inside of the uterus. Hysteroscopy can be either diagnostic or operative.

Hysteroscopy is useful for diagnosing and treating some problems that cause infertility, miscarriages, and abnormal menstrual bleeding. Sometimes other procedures,such as laparoscopy, are done at the same time as hysteroscopy.

What is diagnostic hysteroscopy?

Diagnostic hysteroscopy is used to examine the inside of the uterus, also known as the uterine cavity and may also be used to confirm the results of other tests such as hysterosalpingography (HSG). This procedure is helpful in diagnosing abnormal uterine conditions such as polyps, internal fibroids, scarring, and developmental abnormalities. A diagnostic Hysteroscopy takes only a few minutes and can sometimes be performed in the Outpatients Department while you are awake.

What is operative hysteroscopy?

Operative hysterocopy may be used to both diagnose and treat certain conditions such as uterine adhesions, septums, fibroids or abnormal bleeding which can often be removed through the hysteroscope. If an abnormal condition was detected during the diagnostic hysteroscopy, an operative hysteroscopy can often be performed at the same time, avoiding the need for a second surgery. During operative hysteroscopy, small instruments used to correct the condition are inserted through the hysteroscope. A Hysteroscopy for the treatment of a certain medical condition is usually performed under a general anaesthetic in the Day Surgery Unit.

Why hysteroscopy Is Done?

Hysteroscopy is used both to diagnose and treat abnormal vaginal bleeding. If areas of bleeding are found during the procedure, the tissue may be destroyed by laser beam or electric current (electrocautery) or surgically removed at the same time. Hysteroscopy is done to locate and evaluate the cause of uterine bleeding, such as uterine fibroids, when blood loss is severe and Confirm a diagnosis before the start of treatment with medicines that have significant side effects(related to hormones).

Conditions treated hysteroscopically include endometrial polyps or fibroids that can be removed to enhance fertility. Hysteroscopy is used for conditions below:

1) Infertility: A couple may not be able to achieve pregnancy for a number of reasons. Sometimes the cause of female infertility is related to the defect in the shape or size of the uterus. One example of this is a separate uterus (a thin sheet of tissue divides the inside of the uterus into two sections). Hysteroscopy may find and help treat these problems.

2) Abnormal Growths: Sometimes benign growths, such as polyps and fibroids, can be diagnosed with the hysteroscope. Hysteroscopy might help a doctor to biopsy a growth in the uterus to find out whether it may be cancer or may become cancer. These structures can be removed with operative hysteroscopy in 20 minutes in the Outpatients Department.

3) Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A woman has this condition if she has heavier or longer periods than usual or has any bleeding after her periods have stopped at menopause. Hysteroscopy may help the doctor and find the cause of abnormal bleeding that other methods have not found. It may be used to take a biopsy.

4) Repeated Miscarriages: Some women experience consecutive pregnancy losses before 20 weeks. Hysteroscopy can be used to identify the reason of recurrent losses. Adhesions and uterine abnormalities may result in this problem and can be fixed by hysteroscopy.

5) Adhesions: Bands of scar tissue or adhesions may form inside of the uterus. This is so called Asher man’s syndrome. These adhesions may cause infertility and changes in menstrual flow. Hysteroscopy may help dissect adhesions.

6) Displaced IUDs: An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small plastic device inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. In some cases, it moves out of its proper position inside the uterus. It then embeds itself in the uterine wall or the tissues around it. It can be found and removed hysteroscopically.

The time it takes to perform hysteroscopy can range from less than 5 minutes to more than an hour. The length of the procedure depends on whether it is diagnostic or operative and whether an additional procedure, such as laparoscopy, is done at the same time. In general, however, diagnostic hysteroscopy takes less time than operative.

Few things to be noted or taken care of while opting for Hysteroscopic Procedure.

1) Hysteroscopy is a safe and simple approach. Problems such as injury to the cervix or the uterus, infection, heavy bleeding, or side effects of the anesthesia occur in less than 1% of the cases.

2) Hysteroscopy is best done during the first week after the menstrual period. This allows a better view of the inside of the uterus. With general anesthesia, you breathe a mixture of gases through a mask and you will not be conscious during the surgery.

3) Before a hysteroscopy, the opening of your cervix may need to be dilated (made wider) with a special device. The hysteroscope then is inserted through the cervix and into the uterus.

4) A liquid may be released through the hysteroscope to expand the uterus so that the inside can be seen better. A light shone through the device allows the doctor to view the inside of the uterus and the openings of the fallopian tubes into the uterine.

5) You may feel faint or sick or you may have slight vaginal bleeding and cramps for a day or two. get in touch with your doctor if you have fever, severe abdominal pain, heavy vaginal bleeding or discharge.

What are the benefits of hysteroscopy?

Hysteroscopy as compared with other more invasive procedures is more beneficial because of shorter hospital stay, shorter recovery time, less pain medication needed after surgery, avoidance of hysterectomy and possible avoidance of open abdominal surgery.

What are the risks and complications of hysteroscopy?

It is expected to experience light vaginal bleeding and some cramping after the hysteroscopy procedure. Some cramping may be felt during the procedure, depending upon the type of anesthesia. Complications of hysteroscopy are rare and include perforation of the uterus, bleeding, infection, damage to the urinary or digestive tract, and medical complications resulting from reactions to drugs or anesthetic agents. Accidental perforation of the uterus is the most common complication and occurs in 0.1% of diagnostic hysteroscopy procedures and 1% of therapeutic (surgical) hysteroscopies. Severe or life-threatening complications, however, are very uncommon. Some of the complications above may prevent completion of the surgery.

Hysteroscopy is considered minor surgery and usually does not require an overnight stay in the hospital. However, in certain circumstances, such as if your doctor is concerned about your reaction to anesthesia, an overnight stay may be required. Hysteroscopy allow physicians to diagnose and correct many gynecological disorders on an outpatient basis. Patient recovery time is brief and significantly less than the recovery time from abdominal surgery through larger incisions. Before undergoing hysteroscopy, patients should discuss with their physicians any concerns about the procedures and their risks.

In your journey of parenthood when you are facing infertility problems it is always advisable to get the fertility treatments at the earliest. For any infertility issues like recurrent miscarriage, Polyps or fibroid tumors inside the cervical canal and inside the uterine cavity or abnormal uterine bleeding do not hesitate to consult your OB-GYN. At Al-Manar Fertility & Endoscopy Center we provide warm, caring and supportive approach to fertility treatments. As a unified team, guided by the highest ethical standards, we provide our patients with individualized and compassionate fertility care. Together we will map out a plan to determine the cause of your infertility and an appropriate course of action. Many problems can easily be corrected with medication or minimally invasive surgical procedures like hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. For couples facing more difficult challenges, our ART program ranks among the best in the nation. For any assistance or further information, feel free to contact us at or or you can give us a call at 964 7814444401.